The Polish Journal of Aviation Medicine, Bioengineering and Psychology

Kwartalnik Polskiego Towarzystwa Medycyny Lotniczej

2013, Volume 19, Issue 3

Selected Problems of Space Medicine. Early Physiological Research at the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine

Mieczysław Wojtkowiak1
1Department of Physiology, Military Institute of Aviation Medicine

Autor korenspondencyjny: Mieczysław Wojtkowiak; Department of Physiology, Military Institute of Aviation Medicine; email: mwojtkow[at]wiml.waw.pl

DOI: 10.13174/pjamp.19.03.2013.5

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Introduction. The work is a review and an assessment of the scientific achievements of the employees of the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine (MIAM) associated with aviation and space medicine. Methods. A retrospective analysis of studies of animals exposed to flight factors, corresponding to the weightlessness of space was performed. A decrease in the physical capacity of animals was observed on the basis of the simulated weightlessness, hypokinesia and hypodynamics. Concomitant effects of vibration and acceleration following a long-term hypokinesia resulted in the physiological disturbances of the circulatory, muscular and nervous systems of the animals. These changes were identified using radioactive isotopes. Some studies were performed in the sputniks under true space flight conditions. The effects of vibration on an organism were also analyzed and have shown that prolonged exposure to this factor leads to changes in the nervous system. The work also discusses research done on the effects of the biological work-sleep-rest cycle. Conclusions. It was shown that the greatest contribution to the study of aviation and space medicine was made by works utilizing biochemical, physiological and morphological methods using radioisotopes, which highlighted the advantage of their use during their study period.

Słowa kluczowe

pilots, pilots, astronauts, astronauts, cosmonauts, cosmonauts, astronautics, astronautics, animal radioisotope studies, animal radioisotope studies, hypodynamics, hypodynamics, hypokinesia, hypokinesia, vibration, vibration, simulated weightlessness, simulated weightlessness